Which Of The Following Was An Effect Of The North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta)
The kick-off of a North American free trade area began with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who made the idea part of his 1980 presidential campaign. After the signing of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in 1988, the governments of U.S. President George H.W. Bush, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney agreed to negotiate nafta. Both submitted the agreement for ratification in their respective capitals in December 1992, but NAFTA faced considerable opposition in both the United States and Canada. The three countries ratified NAFTA in 1993 following the addition of two related agreements, the North American Worker Cooperation Agreement (NAALC) and the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC). Nevertheless, NAFTA has been a recurring objective in the broader free trade debate. President Donald J. Trump says it undermines U.S. jobs and manufacturing, and in December 2019, his administration finalized an updated version of the pact with Canada and Mexico, now known as the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). The USMCA received broad support from all parties on Capitol Hill and came into force on July 1, 2020.
In addition to the two trilateral agreements, the United States and Mexico have concluded a complementary bilateral agreement with NAFTA on cooperation on environmental exclusion.37 In that agreement, the two governments committed to cooperate in the development of environmental infrastructure projects along the U.S.-Mexico border to address environmental degradation issues due to growing economic activity. The agreement created two organizations that deal with these issues: the Boundaries Commission for the Environment (BECC), based in Jusrez, Mexico, and the North American Development Bank (NADBank), based in San Antonio, Texas. Sister organizations work closely and with other federal, regional and local partners in the United States and Mexico to develop, certify and facilitate funding for water and wastewater treatment, municipal waste and related projects on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border region. These projects have provided border crossers with greater access to drinking water, sewers and wastewater treatment. In December 2014, the Board of Directors of NADBank and beCC approved a merger of the two organizations, which is not yet complete at the time of this report.38 NAFTA was the first U.S. E FREI trade agreement to contain environmental provisions.