Us North Korea Agreement
29-31 March 1999: Representatives of the United States and North Korea conduct a fourth round of missile talks in Pyongyang. The United States once again expresses concern about North Korea`s missile development and missile broadcasting activities and proposes an agreement that trades North Korea`s reluctance to ease U.S. sanctions. U.S. officials described the talks as „serious and intense,“ but they only managed to reach an agreement to meet again at an unspecified date. The Bush administration`s response to these provocations has been surprisingly reticent in denying the absence of a crisis and refusing to engage in direct talks with North Korea until Kim Jong-il has put an end to acts that constituted a flagrant violation of past agreements. The government`s position depends on the belief that Kim Jong-il`s regime has succeeded in blackmailing previous US governments with bad behavior. The government is determined to break this cycle, even at the cost of pursuing North Korea`s nuclear program. Under the terms of the agreed framework, North Korea decided to freeze its nuclear program and cooperate with U.S.
and IAEA verification efforts, and in January 1995, the United States eased economic sanctions against North Korea. Initially, emergency funds from the U.S. Department of Defense, which were not under congressional control, were used to finance transitional oil deliveries under the agreement along with international funding. Starting in 1996, Congress allocated appropriations, but not always sufficient amounts.  As a result, some of the agreed-upon transitory oil deliveries were delivered late.  The first director of KEDO, Stephen W. Bosworth, later commented, „The agreed framework was a political orphan within two weeks of signing.“  It was only in the government of President Roh Tae Woo in the early 1990s that South Korea developed what President Roh called „northern policy,“ a policy of limited engagement with North Korea. During this period, high-level meetings were held with North Korea at the ministerial level. Ideas were exchanged on confidence-building measures and arms control. President George H.W. Bush has made a significant contribution to the North-South dialogue by suppressing South Korea`s nuclear weapons and reducing military exercises between the United States and the ROK.